Lately there is a lot of talk about surrogacy or rental belly, as many celebrities have resorted to this technique to be parents. In some countries it is legal while in others it is illegal, as in our country. There is a great ethical debate open where we will not enter here. We just want to tell you in detail what surrogacy consists of and the different types there are.
What is surrogacy?
It consists in a woman carrying pregnancy, but the child who will give birth is not her but belongs to other parents both genetically and legally. It is an option that there are in some countries for couples who cannot be parents otherwise, because of different physical impediments or by homosexual couples.
There are different types of surrogacy.
- Altruistic. It can be done altruistically, where there is no economic agreement with the carrier mother (only the part of the expenses such as medical and legal it may cause). There is no profit.
- Lucrative. When there is a trade agreement with the pregnant mother. It is the most frequent, it leads to an economic agreement with the woman who will carry the baby. These women often work with specialized agencies.
One of the countries where this practice is legal is in the United States, where it usually costs between 90,000 and 140,000 dollars. Due to the high cost of the United States, many couples come to other countries such as Russia, Ukraine or India where it can cost between 22,000 and 35,000 dollars.
It can be carried out by 2 techniques:
- TraditionalThe pregnant mother provides her egg, but the sperm comes from the parent requesting the surrogacy or from a donor. The technique of artificial insemination or in vitro fertilization is usually used. There are fewer and fewer cases like this, first because legislation in many countries prevents the pregnant mother and the egg donor from being the same person. And second to reduce the link between pregnant mother and baby.
- Gestational. It is when both the egg and sperm are carried by the partner who asks for surrogacy or if necessary by donors. In these cases the pregnant woman has no genetic relationship with the baby. In these cases it is done by in vitro fertilization, where the fertilized egg is created outside the woman’s body, in a laboratory. It’s the most widely used.
Legal aspects of surrogacy
- Legalization or not of surrogacy. It is the set of laws that allow or not to carry out such contracts. As we have seen before some countries have it legalized although in most countries it is not. Where it is, everyone has their own legal requirements to be able to carry it out. In Europe it is banned in many countries such as France, Italy, Sweden, Germany and Switzerland . This technique is not allowed in Spain. On the other hand, it is allowed with nuances in Portugal, Greece, the UK, Belgium and the Netherlands . In the Netherlands and Belgium it can only be done altruistically, and each country has its own specific requirements to make it possible.
- Registration of the baby’s civil registry. Countries that have legalized this practice also include registration of the baby’s civil registration as a child of the parents who initiated the proceedings. Other countries may not allow it, and legal proceedings should be initiated to recognize paternity. And in some countries that is allowed they could refuse it if the couple comes from a country where it is illegal.
Some people think it is the opportunity of many couples that nature does not allow them to be parents, get their sleep and others that results in the exploitation of women especially the third world countries as if they were baby farms. It is the most complex reproduction technique in legal and moral terms, even political parties use it in their own campaigns. Here the controversy is served.